Report: Level 3 Charging Option Available Only on SL Trim for $700

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If you want to use your LEAF for a long distance trip, you really need level 3 charging…and a level 3 charging port. In Japan, Nissan is setting up a L3 charging network via their dealership base, so that there is one available L3 on the SL for drives on the I-5, ‘only’ $700: If you want to use your LEAF for a long distance trip, you really need level 3 charing. In Japan, Nissan is setting up a L3 charging network via their dealership base, so that there is one available within a 40-kilometer radius throughout the country. We are not so lucky here in North America. Still, for some us, the infrastructure will be there to take that long drive…if not today, then someday.

But there was so many questions left unanswered by Nissan about the L3 option on the LEAF. Would it be available in all regions? Both trim levels? How much would it cost? Would one of the zillions of government incentives out there right now pick up part (or all) of the cost? If we did not take the option at purchase, could we get it later? And on, and on, and…

The last update we had on the L3 option, which would allow the car to almost be fully charged in 25 minutes, was from Mark Perry (Nissan rep) this past June 1st, when he had said, “all Nissan Leafs will ship with the level three charging receptacle installed”

Great. Now we know that it will at least look like we have it; but that probably won’t do me a lot of good when I am 80 miles from home and now have to wait 8 hours for the car to recharge to return. A little piece of molded plastic is of little comfort.

Well, one of our community, Tom Tweed, decided he had waited long enough and got the answer for himself, and graciously posted his chat transcript in our forum. (thanks Tom!) I will highlight the details between Tom and ‘Jesse’ (from Nissan Electric Vehicle Customer Support) in case you have a aversion to clicking:

  • Tom:
    On the Nissan site, under the specs for the SL, it says:
    “All the features of our standard SV PLUS…”
    QuickCharger *optional”. Does that mean I pay extra for it beyond the SL package?
  • Jesse
    Yes. The level 3 charging port is an optional add on available on the SL package.
  • Tom
    So it is not included automatically and is an add-on cost?
  • Jesse
    The quick charge port is not automatically included. However if you are approved for the free charger from ECOtality the port will be included as part of that project.
  • Tom
    That’s what I thought. Thanks for your help. If I do not qualify, how much is the quick-charge option going to cost? I wouldn’t buy a Leaf without it.
  • Jesse
    The charging dock is an accessory to purchase the estimated cost included installation is $2,200 and is currently eligible for a tax credit of 50% of the cost up to a total credit of $2,000.
  • Tom
    I know that, I mean the Level 3 QuickCharge Port in the car, for recharging at commercial stations.
  • Jesse
    That information is not yet available. It should be when ordering begins.
  • Tom
    I definitely want the capability of getting an 80% charge in 30 minutes from a 440V charger at remote locations in the community. I understand about the home charging system and it is 220V and 6-8 hours to charge. This doesn’t help when you want to go further than 100 miles in a day. I just don’t understand yet what it is going to cost me to include this capability in my car, and from what you are telling me, I still don’t know, unless I qualify for the free charger, and then ECOtality will pay for it?
  • Jesse
    Right if approved for the free charger with ECOtality then the level 3 port will be included. The pricing information for the port is not available and will only be an available add on with the SL trim level.
  • Tom
    OK, I guess I just have to be patient and wait for the forthcoming details. Thanks! Over and out.

Nissan LEAF's L3 CHAdeMO and L2 J-1772 receptacle

Nissan LEAF’s L3 CHAdeMO and L2 J-1772 receptacle. The LEAF also comes with a 25 foot long L1 cable with a J-1772 plug on one end.

Further to this conversation we do have some pricing information on the L3 option. Nothing ‘officially’ official mind you, but many of the dealers coming back from the ‘lets learn about the LEAF’ convention are putting the number at $700, which seems reasonable…and why not trust them on this one?

(Although, I confess the last time I trusted a dealer was when I ordered a Trans Am WS6 in 1998 that I was told would be “in by Christmas” and ended up waiting until the following summer before giving up)

46 Responses

  1. Herm says:

    I dont think it will be a popular option, at that cost.

      (Quote)

  2. george says:

    The high speed charging should be a priority. Tesla has high speed charging they are putting around with every opportunity. I have a high speed charger for electric bikes in China that can recharge an electric motorcycle in 10 minutes. These rechargers only use 220 v at 10 amps and the batteries go 20 Km when full so do the rechargers do a lot with limited power. Its amazing they work. So if china can do that with limited power why cant you do better with 440v and big amperage of 50 amps. Something wrong with America somewhere.

    WHo is is planning Nissans electric future, Ford???

      (Quote)

  3. george says:

    An idea. Even for the low power charging. If the leaf’s battery were modular then each pin of the charging plug could be for a separate module. A high speed low power charger could be applied to each pin. so 60 km range charged in 10 minutes and 120 km range charged in 20 minutes, even for the low power option. Your 80 miles in 20 minutes. This with low power 10 amp recharging units. Low or no heat.

      (Quote)

  4. RB says:

    This post is good news, in that a path for quick recharge is becoming clear.
    Now it’s important for Nissan to get the L3 port, etc, in every Leaf, so that every customer can count on it.
    .
    /The downside is finding some neat way to store the charging cable. Otherwise 25ft cables are going to be a real pain in the neck, an eternity spent trying to avoid driving over or tripping over.

      (Quote)

  5. Herm says:

    The Level 3 cable stays with the charger, its a heavy and expensive cable.

      (Quote)

  6. RB says:

    Herm: The Level 3 cable stays with the charger, its a heavy and expensive cable.  

    Whatever level the cable, and wherever it stays, it is going to be a big nuisance until some design effort goes into creating a system that rolls up nicely and looks attractive.
    .
    ‘Cable mess’ could be — but does not have to be — one of those unintended consequences of vehicle electrification that makes the whole enterprise dis-like-able. (smile)

      (Quote)

  7. GeorgeS says:

    You guys absolutely without a doubt need to purchase this option, even if it costs 700$ more than the SL package. If you don’t want it the next guy will.

    I also had this same conversation with the chat line. They also said you must order the SL to get the Level3 charger. However, they did NOT say that you had to pay 700$ over and above the SL upgrade.

    RB and Herm ,
    So, 50kw at 440 volts is 114 amps. I have lost my wire sizing table what is that —00. We are talking battery cable diameters on that cable!!

      (Quote)

  8. mark smith says:

    I think that the article / Nissan person spokesperson is confused between:
    1. saying the 440v fast charger option isn’t available on non SL cars.
    2. saying wether you get a 220v chargepoint installation installed in your house or not.

    I would seriously hope all Nisan Leaf’s can be fast charged at 440v by driving to a charging station and plugging in with the thick 440v fast charge lead. It would be downright STUPID if only some of the cars had the receptacle on the car for charging at the faster rate!

      (Quote)

  9. RB says:

    It would be downright STUPID if only some of the cars had the receptacle on the car for charging at the faster rate!

    .
    Agree entirely, and confusing too, and an impediment to installing commercial chargers if only a portion could use them.

      (Quote)

  10. Herm says:

    RB and Herm ,
    So, 50kw at 440 volts is 114 amps. I have lost my wire sizing table what is that —00. We are talking battery cable diameters on that cable!!

    I think the spec is 125A, #0 gauge welding cable.. 25ft of that is $160
    http://www.acehardwareoutlet.com/productdetails.aspx?sku=2147005818&source=GoogleBase

      (Quote)

  11. Herm says:

    $700 is a lot of money for an option that most people do not need/will never use, I’m glad Nissan made it optional.. not so glad they bundled it with the SL package.

      (Quote)

  12. Herm says:

    Now, I would be happy to pay for the special light duty towing package and the rear bumper DC plug :)

      (Quote)

  13. GeorgeS says:

    Now, I would be happy to pay for the special light duty towing package and the rear bumper DC plug   

    Herm,
    did you see my post yesterday. For the very efficient Honda 2000EU generator and gas at 3$/gal it costs 50 cents a kwh to make your own juice. I think the enginer pack is the way to go.

      (Quote)

  14. Karl Olmstead says:

    If you don’t need L3 charging, you might be better off buying a used Leaf that doesn’t have the charge port. You could be certain that the battery life hadn’t been compromised by excessive L3 charging.

      (Quote)

  15. kyle says:

    RB, that’s pretty interesting news. I’m sure alot of people will not be happy about that. including myself.

      (Quote)

  16. RB says:

    kyle: likewise.

      (Quote)

  17. Carcus says:

    I think it might be quite a while before BEV’s will be sold in any volume as a practical cross country machine.

    Realistically , I would say you need at least 150 miles of real world highway range plus another 40 miles or so of reserve. And then you have to factor in the 80% or so quick charge limitation so now maybe we’re talking 230 miles of highway range. That’s quite a bit of battery to be packing around in a car that only needs maybe 60 miles range in its normal day to day operation. I figure most (90%+) of the Leaf buyers are keeping at least one gasser around for towing/ long distance travel — so while many would say they’d like the BEV to be road trip capable I’d bet there’s not a lot that would cough up the extra bucks for that much battery. (I’d certainly like to be wrong on this, maybe the battery tech will come on even faster and cheaper than I think)

    Having said that, I would still like the option of a L3 fast charge, if say I had a full day’s worth of driving and then wanted to drive across town in the evening for a ball game. (stadium’s about 30 miles away). There’s a Nissan dealership a few miles from my house so it would be nice if the U.S. dealers would have the L3 chargers available.

    P.S. — Just got an email from Nissan saying I’ll be able to order my Leaf in February, 2011.

      (Quote)

  18. GeorgeS says:

    I really think they should offer a scalable battery pack. So you could order a Leaf with 24,26,28,kwh packs. If I had a 28 I could make it work for my driving cycle. That plus 1, L3 charger close by would do the trick.
    I’m with you guys I wish all US dealers had the L3 like in Japan.

      (Quote)

  19. jeremy wilson says:

    Question- why cant they let you use the 220v charger up to 60 amps like a stove receptacle has, that would be just as quick as a level 3 at 440v. Just doesn’t make sense.

      (Quote)

  20. Jimza Skeptic says:

    I think it might be quite a while before BEV’s will be sold in any volume as a practical cross country machine.Realistically , I would say you need at least 150 miles of real world highway range plus another 40 miles or so of reserve.And then you have to factor in the 80% or so quick charge limitation so now maybe we’re talking 230 miles of highway range.That’s quite a bit of battery to be packing around in a car that only needs maybe 60 miles range in its normal day to day operation.I figure most (90%+) of the Leaf buyers are keeping at least one gasser around for towing/ long distance travel — so while many would say they’d like the BEV to be road trip capable I’d bet there’s not a lot that would cough up the extra bucks for that much battery.(I’d certainly like to be wrong on this, maybe the battery tech will come on even faster and cheaper than I think)Having said that, I would still like the option of a L3 fast charge,if say I had a full day’s worth of driving and then wanted to drive across town in the evening for a ball game. (stadium’s about 30 miles away).There’s a Nissan dealership a few miles from my house so it would be nice if the U.S. dealers would have the L3 chargers available.P.S.— Just got an email from Nissan saying I’ll be able to order my Leaf in February, 2011.  

    WOW you can only order your Leaf in February 2011? VOLT’s are already being booked. Looks like Nissan has scaled back plans for U.S. market. About 3,300 cars next year. Only several target areas versus initial claims of “available throughout the country”. Range anxiety has slowly crept in. Dealers are offering “fire sale” prices before the car hits the ground. Now Nissan has to try to alleviate range anxiety by building in costly add-ons for quick charge. Before you know it the price will be $41,000. You will have a car that gets 47-120 miles per charge and have a wonderful quick charge system (if you can find it) all for the price of a VOLT. That’s ok. As Carcus says, you can always have a second car to take up the slack. Or you can go with one Leaf and risk the life of your child or elderly mother… Hmmmm… I will take the VOLT as I love my children, my parents and the environment! ;-)

      (Quote)

  21. jeremy wilson says:

    To the Leaf smasher J Skeptic- Yea take your 30 – 40 mile range volt and the $10 gallon price of gas in a few years, I hope you don’t run out of electricity on your 30- 40 mile drives and have to mortgage your house to buy some gasoline. Gee, dude lighten up with your worst case scenario.

      (Quote)

  22. Jimza Skeptic says:

    To the Leaf smasherJ Skeptic- Yea take your 30 – 40 mile range volt and the $10 gallon price of gas in a few years, I hope you don’t run out of electricity on your 30- 40 mile drives and have to mortgage your house to buy some gasoline.Gee, dude lighten up with your worst case scenario.  

    ;-) Jeremy must be a virgin to the Leaf / Volt rivalry…. A few of the Leaf blowers from this site bungee jumped into VOLT land along time ago (and still do) to drop comments about the VOLT availability and cost, etc. It’s all in good fun there kid! ;-) However, our team will still win! You can join our team at gm-volt.com GO VOLT! ;-)

      (Quote)

  23. Stan Stein says:

    Do we need a L3 charger? Everybodys needs vary. I had been thinking that i probably only needed Level 2 and charging overnight would be sufficient for me. I decided to test my thinking by keeping a daily log of miles driven. It showed that the majority of time , I go about 70 miles a day. But sometimes I go over that unexpectedly and come close to or over 100 miles. At the very least , without the availability of a level 3 charger I would have range anxiety or worse on those 100 mile days. I would recommend that people test their opinon of their needs for level three by keeping a log of miles driven for a month or so. stanley

      (Quote)

  24. Off topic:
    .
    http://green.autoblog.com/2010/08/16/nissan-dealer-says-only-3-300-leafs-will-be-available-in-u-s-by/
    .
    Dealer says number of Leafs by March will be about 3300.  (Quote)

    .

    WOW you can only order your Leaf in February 2011? VOLT’s are already being booked. Looks like Nissan has scaled back plans for U.S. market. About 3,300 cars next year. Only several target areas versus initial claims of “available throughout the country”. ;-)   (Quote)

    .
    You guys needs to watch the site here the next couple days, (=

      (Quote)

  25. Carcus says:

    I would recommend that people test their opinon of their needs for level three by keeping a log of miles driven for a month or so.

    Yes. I think even Nissan has mentioned this is a good idea for prospective Leaf buyers in general (not just for Level 3 charging). Most will probably be surprised how infrequently the “over 100″ day comes up. And I would imagine a few will realize that a BEV won’t fit their hosehold’s driving profile.

      (Quote)

  26. Carcus says:

    .
    .
    You guys needs to watch the site here the next couple days, (=  

    It’d be interesting to hear some info on what the demand will be in Japan. I haven’t read anything yet, but seeing how crazy Japan is for hybrids (i.e. Prius) and how fast they seem to be moving on the charging stations, I’d think there’s a possibility that Nissan might struggle just to keep up with the “rising sun” orders.

      (Quote)

  27. evnow says:

    Only several target areas versus initial claims of “available throughout the country”.

    Can you give me a link for this ?

    Isn’t strawman cool ? ;)

      (Quote)

  28. .

    .
    You guys needs to watch the site here the next couple days, (=  (Quote)

    …or now, finally got the new thread up, lol
    http://nissan-leaf.net/2010/08/17/local-dealer-only-3300-leafs-to-us-by-marchspecial-cities-first-nissan-news-to-us/

      (Quote)

  29. Herm says:

    Question- why cant they let you use the 220v charger up to 60 amps like a stove receptacle has, that would be just as quick as a level 3 at 440v. Just doesn’t make sense.

    Very good point Jeremy.. the internal LEAF charger handles up to 6kw (?) it would have to be doubled to 13kw.. perhaps too many people would abuse it. The j1772 connector is rated for up 70A. At the full 16kw it could recharge the battery in about 1.5 hours. Obviously it would have to be a hardwired installation to your electric panel.

    There are some schemes to use the motor inverter as the charger also, so perhaps it would not cost much more to implement your idea.

    Question: does the LEAF have a separate charger or is it built-in to the motor inverter?

      (Quote)

  30. mark smith says:

    $700 is a lot of money for an option that most people do not need/will never use, I’m glad Nissan made it optional.. not so glad they bundled it with the SL package.  (Quote)

    But the car has to have the cable going to the front of the car anyway for the normaly 220v charger. The extra cost to manufacture the car with a 400v socket is the 400v socket. The battery works at 360v and high current as that’s what the batteries are (48 modules x 7.5V)… the full spec of the batteries according to the manufacturers site is:

    Weight:3.8kg
    Nominal Voltage:7.5V
    Capacity:66Ah
    Size:315×225×36

    eg.
    3.8kg x 48 = 182.4kg (batteries – not the pack) = 396 lbs.
    7.5v x 48 = 360v from the battery (if 100%)

      (Quote)

  31. mark smith says:

    Do we need a L3 charger? Everybodys needs vary. I had been thinking that i probably only needed Level 2 and charging overnight would be sufficient for me. I decided to test my thinking by keeping a daily log of miles driven. It showed that the majority of time , I go about 70 miles a day. But sometimes I go over that unexpectedly and come close to or over 100 miles. At the very least , without the availability of a level 3 charger I would have range anxiety or worse on those 100 mile days. I would recommend that people test their opinon of their needs for level three by keeping a log of miles driven for a month or so. stanley  (Quote)

    IMHO – only people living on Guernsey, Jersey or some island about 20 miles across are the only ones that WONT want a 440v – 26minute charge option – just in case… and NISSAN will shoot themselves in the foot if every car doesn’t come with the option to fast-charge. Go forward 5-10 years and we’ll see these on freeways, shopping centres, and large out of town supermarkets.

      (Quote)

  32. mark smith says:

    I ask Nissan to think (and people buying the car) what would the resale value be if in 5 years nationwide fast chargers were in lots of places – but YOUR CAR couldn’t be charged on those… but would have to be parked at the supermarket for 8 hours to be charged enough to go another 50 miles.
    This 440v option should not be SL trim only – and I very much doubt that it is – I’d hope there’s a mis-comuincation here.

      (Quote)

  33. JEff says:

    Who needs to worry about compromised battery life? Haven’t you heard all the cheering going on about the 8 year/100/000 warranty?

    Digging tongue out of cheek, it will be a few years before used Leaf’s become available. Heck for some of us it will be a couple of years before new Leafs become available.

    If you don’t need L3 charging, you might be better off buying a used Leaf that doesn’t have the charge port. You could be certain that the battery life hadn’t been compromised by excessive L3 charging

      (Quote)

  34. Karl Olmstead says:

    What you’re saying is true, JEff. My viewpoint is warped; it’ll be 70 miles to the nearest L3 charger, and summer daytime temps of 110 F. will be killing my batteries. I am even going to ask the dealer not to L3 charge the car before I take delivery. The 8 yr / 100K mi warranty was great news! I’m expecting three year battery life, based on how fast I go through batteries on my cordless drill.

    Hard to predict availability of Leafs. I’m betting that dropout rate on hand-raisers will be 50% or more. Hoping for a December car for tax reasons, but if not, anytime next year would be nice. And if not in 2011, then there might be something a lot better looking out there. I could even live with a Volt, after it flops and the price comes down.

      (Quote)

  35. mark smith says:

    What you’re saying is true, JEff. My viewpoint is warped; it’ll be 70 miles to the nearest L3 charger, and summer daytime temps of 110 F. will be killing my batteries. I am even going to ask the dealer not to L3 charge the car before I take delivery. The 8 yr / 100K mi warranty was great news! I’m expecting three year battery life, based on how fast I go through batteries on my cordless drill.Hard to predict availability of Leafs. I’m betting that dropout rate on hand-raisers will be 50% or more. Hoping for a December car for tax reasons, but if not, anytime next year would be nice. And if not in 2011, then there might be something a lot better looking out there. I could even live with a Volt, after it flops and the price comes down.  (Quote)

    If the batteries can go 1000 charges and only lose 10% of capacity. Then slow charging means you won’t be charging it more than once a day – so the batteries will last 3 years before range drops from 100 miles to 90 miles. But with typical variety in tyres, traffic, driving styles it’s not likely you or anybody would notice that 10% as the range is based on relatively recent driving habits.

      (Quote)

  36. Karl Olmstead says:

    Mark, it all depends on how you’re going to use the car. The LA4 EPA estimate of a 100 miles is at an average of about 22 mph. I’ll be driving mostly 45 to 55 mph, and probably using the heater or a/c about half the time. Headlights both ways all winter long. I expect that under those conditions, the Leaf will give about 65-70 miles when brand new. After three years, with three months per year of over 100 degree temps, I would expect about 45-50 mile range, even if I never charge fast. That hundred mile stuff and 80% battery capacity after eight years might be true in a perfect world, but won’t even be close for most people, and especially those of us in the southwest.

      (Quote)

  37. JEff says:

    Which is why I am not yet cheering the battery warranty. When the full terms and conditions of the warranty become know there will have to be some limitations in the it or Nissan will go bankrupt replacing batteries.

    That hundred mile stuff and 80% battery capacity after eight years might be true in a perfect world, but won’t even be close for most people, and especially those of us in the southwest

      (Quote)

  38. First, there appears to be a common misconception that fast charging will be via 440VAC to the car. Actually, all level 3 charging is planned to be voltage-controlled, current-controlled DC, with the high power charger electronics offboard but controlled by the vehicle via a plug and handshake that is standardized in Japan but not yet in the U.S. The Leaf is designed to accept up to 50 kW for an 80% charge in less than a half hour (after that, does it start tapering down or just turn off?). Level 3 charge current will go directly into the battery at its specific charge voltage (of around 400VDC, I think), not through the vehicle’s charger.
    In contrast, level 2 charge points, or ESVEs, do not contain a charger. They just do some safety, billing, and/or smart grid handshaking, then provide 208-240VAC (or, in some cases, 120VAC) to the vehicle. The standard allows for up to 80A (19 kW), but ESVEs can provide differing maximum current, and a full 80A is unusual. The handshake tells the vehicle not to pull more than available. The level 2 charger that converts the incoming AC into carefully controlled DC is in the vehicle. The charger in the first Leaves is capable of charging at a maximum of 3.3 kW (around 10-12 miles of range extension per hour). Later Leaves are supposed to get 6.6 kW chargers, with an upgrade likely to cost a minimum of $2k (my guess).
    It would take less than an hour of 50 kW fast charging, split between two locations, for me to drive a Leaf one way from the Bay Area to Reno to visit my mother — a practical possibility — but probably 14 hours of 3.3 kW charging or 7 hours even at 6.6 kW, making even such fairly short cross-country gasoline-free trips impractical without level 3 fast charging. As batteries get cheaper and lighter, it will take only 2-3 times the Leaf’s range, along with the same 50 kW charge rate, for me to retire gasoline completely (and the oft-underutilized battery pack will have a longer life and/or also make money providing V2G grid services). A 50-to-75-minute rest and culinary stop every 3-4 hours on any trip sounds inviting to me anyway.

      (Quote)

  39. First, there appears to be a common misconception that fast charging will be via 440VAC to the car. Actually, all level 3 charging is planned to be voltage-controlled, current-controlled DC, with the high power charger electronics offboard but controlled by the vehicle via a plug and handshake that is standardized in Japan but not yet in the U.S. The Leaf is designed to accept up to 50 kW for an 80% charge in less than a half hour (after that, does it start tapering down or just turn off?). Level 3 charge current will go directly into the battery at its specific charge voltage (of around 400VDC, I think), not through the vehicle’s charger.
    In contrast, level 2 charge points, or ESVEs, do not contain a charger. They just do some safety, billing, and/or smart grid handshaking, then provide 208-240VAC (or, in some cases, 120VAC) to the vehicle. The standard allows for up to 80A (19 kW), but ESVEs can provide differing maximum current, and a full 80A is unusual. The handshake tells the vehicle not to pull more than available. The level 2 charger that converts the incoming AC into carefully controlled DC is in the vehicle. The charger in the first Leaves is capable of charging at a maximum of 3.3 kW (around 10-12 miles of range extension per hour). Later Leaves are supposed to get 6.6 kW chargers, with an upgrade likely to cost a minimum of $2k (my guess).
    It would take less than an hour of 50 kW fast charging, split between two locations, for me to drive a Leaf one way from the Bay Area to Reno to visit my mother — a practical possibility — but probably 14 hours of 3.3 kW charging or 7 hours even at 6.6 kW, making even such fairly short cross-country gasoline-free trips impractical without level 3 fast charging. As batteries get cheaper and lighter, it will take only 2-3 times the Leaf’s range, along with the same 50 kW charge rate, for me to retire gasoline completely (and the oft-underutilized battery pack will have a longer life and/or also make money providing V2G grid services). A 50-to-75-minute rest and culinary stop every 3-4 hours on any trip sounds inviting to me anyway.  (Quote)

    Thanks for this Ron, it is a good primer for those not familar with the differences between the levels. The jump to 6.6 I think is a big and significant step and can’t come soon enough.

      (Quote)

  40. David Herron says:

    According to a presentation at PlugIn 2010 by members of the SAE committee defining the fast charging standards… the port you’re calling “Level 3″ is not “Level 3″ but “DC Level 2″. They showed a chart of the AC and DC charging levels and the definitions/nomenclature they’re using. I reproduced those definitions on VisForVoltage.org at: Electric vehicle charging standards

      (Quote)

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    blogging, that actually how to do running a blog.

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